|Comprehensive||All of the analyses combined into one. Sodium is added because it is a concern to persons with heart disease.||aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc|
The required sampling protocol and amount of water required to run the test is listed below.
Water Required: 1 Quart x2
Sampling Protocol: Standard Protocol
The pH of water is a measure of how acidic it is. A pH of 7.0 is neutral. Higher values indicate alkaline water; lower values indicate acidic water. On the average, water with a pH between 6.5 and 8.5 will probably not cause problems. However, the more alkaline the water is, the more likely it will be to have a “lime scale” build-up in the plumbing, especially if the water is hard. The more acidic the water is, the more likely it will be to cause metallic tastes, stains (blue-green from copper; orange-brown from iron), and corrosion of metal components of water systems. Water neutralizing systems are available. If your water is acidic, please refer to the enclosed Acidic Water Information sheet.
6.5 – 8.5
Specific Conductivity (Salinity)
Specific conductivity gives an indication of how high the mineral content of the water is , which could indicate potential problems requiring further analysis. Highly mineralized water can cause problems with water stills, boilers, radiators, and filters, and can cause a mineral build-up on cooking utensils and spotting of glassware. The health effects of highly mineralized water depend upon the minerals present and their concentrations. Very high levels have a cathartic reaction and do not quench thirst. To make an approximate conversion to Total Dissolved Solids, another commonly used measure of mineral content, multiply the specific conductivity value by 0.62. If your water has a high mineral content, please refer to the Highly Mineralized Water Information sheet.
900 μmhos/cm @ 25°C
Hardness (Calcium, Magnesium)
The hardness test primarily measures the Calcium and Magnesium content of water and reflects the degree of difficulty one can expect in using non-detergent soaps. The harder the water, the more soap is required to overcome the effects of the hardness. High hardness at alkaline pH’s can also result in the formation of lime scale in pipes, cookware, and appliances, especially in hot water heaters. A conventional water softener usually remedies the problem. However, persons on restricted sodium diets should be aware that water softeners can significantly increase the sodium content of water.
No recommended limit has been set by the EPA.
Listed below are several possible sources of iron problems:
If our iron-colored soil finds its way into the water source, it may give the appearance of iron contamination. A simple sediment filter is often sufficient to remove moderate amounts of sediment. If the discoloration mainly appears following heavy rainfall, it may be indicative of another problem — contamination by surface water. The coliform bacteria analysis can check whether this is the case.
Water that has a pH of 6.8 or less can be corrosive to metal components of water systems, especially if the water is also soft. Iron can be corroded from galvanized pipes and any iron-containing appliance or fitting. A good test for this condition is to compare the water at the source with water from within the house. If it is low in iron at the source, but high at the house, and acidic, you might want to consider installing a water neutralizer to alleviate the problem.
Dissolved Iron at the water source
Iron may already be present at the water source, either as a natural component of the source water or due to the action of corrosive water on iron or steel well casings. For this type of iron problem there are several types of iron filtration systems available at water conditioning equipment sales outlets.
Old galvanized iron pipes
Many older homes have galvanized iron plumbing. Over time the galvanized coating corrodes off, exposing the iron underneath. Iron pipes are notorious for corrosion. One symptom of this problem is the appearance of iron-colored particles, especially in screen filters. Such break-offs of iron corrosion can also cause rust-colored spots on laundry. One solution for this type of problem is to replace the iron plumbing with an approved alternative.
Compared to the amount of iron normally consumed in the diet, the amount ingested in drinking water is very small, and probably represents little danger of adverse health effects. The EPA limit of 300 g/L was adopted because problems with taste and staining do not occur below that level. However, from 3 – 8 people per 1000 have a rare genetic tendency towards Iron Overloading Disease (primary hemochromatosis).
Very high amounts of dissolved iron can cause the development of a surface film on standing water that resembles an oil slick. Iron removal treatment will alleviate this problem.
There are several species of naturally occurring bacteria that may be associated with the presence of dissolved iron in water, or with iron plumbing. These bacteria are not a health hazard, but can be a considerable nuisance. They are able to use iron as their energy source and may develop into a slimy, iron-impregnated coating on plumbing that can clog filters and other plumbing parts, as well accelerate corrosion. Occasionally pieces of the slime will break off and appear in toilet bowls and bathtubs. Sometimes there are odors associated with the presence of iron bacteria. These odors are often due to sulfate-reducing bacteria which can take up residence in the slime produced by the iron bacteria. During the course of their growth they produce hydrogen sulfide, a gas that smells like rotten eggs. In some instances the hydrogen sulfide will combine with dissolved metals (iron, manganese, copper) in the water to produce black precipitates which often collect in hot water heaters. Periodic disinfections of the well and water system with household bleach may bring temporary relief from sulfur odors, but only rarely permanently cures iron and sulfate-reducing bacterial problems. Check with a water conditioning professional for their treatment recommendations.
300 μg/L (0.3 mg/L)
Manganese in amounts greater than 50 to 100 μg/L may cause dingy laundry, blackish stains on plumbing fixtures, and may impart a metallic taste to water. Manganese treatment systems are available.
50 μg/L (0.05 mg/L)
The recently revised limit for arsenic in public drinking water is 10 µg/L. Some people who drink arsenic in excess of 10 µg/L over many years may experience skin damage or circulatory system problems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
10 μg/L (0.01 mg/L)
A high copper content of domestic water usually manifests itself as a blue-green stain on white plumbing fixtures, particularly bathtubs. Sometimes the stain is just a streak under a leaking faucet. Sometimes it covers an entire bathtub. Copper also gives water a bitter metallic taste or after-taste, especially first thing in the morning. High copper levels in water can also be an indication that your pipes may develop pinhole leaks in the future.
Is copper harmful to your health? Drinking water regulations treat it only as an aesthetic problem because of the stains, tastes, and corrosion. However, a swig of copper-laden water can cause nausea and vomiting. Some people are particularly sensitive to copper. They can experience severe physiological disorders such as intestinal problems, aching joints, headaches, fatigue, and even mental disorders. In our experience, many doctors are not familiar with this condition.
Where does the copper come from? In the northern Sierra and adjacent valley areas, copper from the well itself is virtually non-existent. Typically it enters the water due to the action of the water on copper pipes. The tendency of water to dissolve copper and other metals is a complex interaction of several factors. These include pH (acidity), calcium, alkalinity (carbonate and bicarbonate), dissolved solids (TDS), temperature, water flow, sulfide, dissolved gases, etc. Changing any one of these factors will affect whether the water will dissolve or corrode metal plumbing.
Most copper problems in our area are the result of acidic water (pH lower than 7.0). See the Acidic Water Information Sheet for details. In these cases, installing a calcite (calcium carbonate) or soda ash (sodium carbonate) neutralizer usually does the trick. In rare instances this does not work.
Listed below are some other possible causes you might explore if a calcite neutralizer does not fix the problem:
The lower the calcium content of water, the more aggressive it tends to be to metal pipes. If you have a water softener (or if your water is naturally low in calcium), the water may be aggressive to pipes even if the pH is in the “correct” range (above 7.0). This type of problem can often be alleviated by using a mixing valve to mix some of the unsoftened water with the softened water.
Even well balanced water will leave streaks under dripping faucets. Fix the leak to resolve this problem.
In many houses, electrical panels are grounded to water pipes. Stray electrical currents can cause corrosion of pipes. This type of problem can be tested using a current meter between the pipes and a solid ground (such as a grounding rod driven into the ground). Solutions include re-grounding the electrical panel to a different approved ground. Grounding the pipes to a grounding rod has also fixed this type of problem in some instances.
Recirculating Hot Water Systems
These systems often result in copper stains that are only observed in rooms served by the system (and only in the hot water). Installing a phosphate cartridge in the loop can often alleviate this problem. The phosphate puts a protective coating on the pipes.
Sulfide (the “rotten egg gas” is hydrogen sulfide) will corrode copper, but usually does not result in blue-green stains. Instead, the sulfide combines with the copper (and other metals) to form a black powder with the consistency of soot. The black material often settles in hot water heaters and may be observed when the heater is drained.
Water sometimes contains dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, or oxygen that may influence metallic corrosion. Some type of aeration system can often alleviate these problems. In fact, aeration is one means of treating acidic water, because the acidity is often associated with excess carbon dioxide.
The recommended drinking water limit for lead is 15 µg/L (0.015 mg/L). Lead in drinking water is usually the result of the effects of corrosive water on lead-containing solder and brass. Consumption of low levels of lead over a long period can have adverse health effects, especially upon children.
- Low: 5-10 µg/L
- Moderate: 11-15 µg/L
- High: >15 µg/L
The current EPA and State of California drinking water limit for nitrate is 10 mg/L as N (which equals 45 mg/L as NO3).. The limit is set at this level because there is a correlation between higher levels and the incidence of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) in infants. Once the baby’s digestive system matures, there is little chance of occurrence of the syndrome. Adults can safely drink water containing as much as 90 mg/L of nitrate (as NO3) without ill effect. Most nitrate contamination of water is due to the use of large amounts of fertilizer. Nitrate is also a by-product of the decomposition of sewage and other nitrogen-containing organic material. Nitrate can be removed from drinking water by reverse osmosis, deionization, and distillation.
For the average person, no limits for sodium in drinking water have been set by either EPA or the State of California. For persons on sodium-restricted diets, the American Heart Association recommends that drinking water contain less than 20 mg/L (parts per million) of sodium. Sodium can be removed from water by distillation, reverse osmosis, or deionization. Such systems can be purchased from water conditioning equipment dealers.
Alkalinity is a general term used to represent the amount of bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxide present is a water supply. It can combine with calcium in the water to form lime scale (calcium carbonate). It also serves to help keep water from changing pH too easily. For these reasons, it is useful to know the amount of alkalinity in a water supply for preventing lime scale, and keeping pools and spas stable. Alkalinity is one of the factors needed for calculation of the saturation index. There are no major adverse health effects to consuming water containing the usual amounts of alkalinity found in most drinking water, and no limit has been established for alkalinity in public water supplies.
Most Probable Number
Gives an estimate of the number of bacteria in the range often found in contaminated wells (1.0 – 200.5 per 100 mL).