Civil engineering & analytical laboratory services


Why do I need to test my water?
Water analysis is required when involved in real estate transactions, zoning disputes, well construction, and many other cases. For a complete list of what is required, check with your local regulatory agencies.

What is meant by Title 22 analysis?
Different people mean different things by “Title 22.”  Different regulatory agencies require different parts of Title 22. Counties vary in how they interpret the regulations. Regulatory requirements differ according to the size and type of system. The enforcement of regulations keeps changing, so be aware that this document may already be out of date. The price for a Title 22 analysis can vary wildly depending on which analyses are needed.

What type of Title 22 analysis do I need?
Is it for waster water or waste analyses?

Before they can be disposed of, many wastes must be checked for certain metals and organic constituents according to well-defined protocols. Many of these guidelines are found in Title 22, Chapter 11, Article 3 (pages 654.2 -657).

  • Organics: Is either subcontracted or sent directly to a lab that does the required analyses.
  • “Title 22 Metals”. List in Title 22, Chapter 11, Article 3, and Section 66261.24: Antimony, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Molybdenum, Nickel, Selenium, Silver, Thallium, Vanadium, and Zinc. (Asbestos and fluoride are also on the list, but are not usually done. Chromium VI and III are both on list, but often only total chromium is done). We can do Total Metals (TTLC), but not Soluble Metals (STLC). Subcontract the latter.

Is it for drinking water analyses?
Do I have a list of which parts of a Title 22 Analyses do I need performed?

  • Inorganic Analyses: Secondary Standards, Primary Inorganic Standards, Langlier Index (Corrosivity) or Aggressiveness Index, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phase V Metals, etc.
  • Radiological Analyses (Gross alpha and/or gross beta)
  • Radiological: Sometimes people think they need Uranium or Radium or Radon or Gross Beta. For most of our clients, the standard procedure is to first check Gross Alpha. If that result is less than 5 pCi/L (Pico curies per liter), no further testing is necessary. We can do alpha and beta in-house. Anything else has to be subcontracted out. Very large systems (none of our public water supplier clients are that big) and bottled water vendors are required to do Gross Beta. Some regulators are now requiring or strongly recommending Uranium and/or Radon testing.
  • Organics: There are two basic regulatory categories of “organic chemicals” -VOC’s (Volatile Organic Chemicals) and SOC’s (Synthetic Organic Chemicals). VOC’s are lightweight chemicals, consisting mainly of solvents and petroleum derivatives. SOC’s are primarily pesticides and herbicides. Most often what is required are the VOC’s. Either EPA 502.2 or 524.2 can run these. The SOC’s are usually required by regulatory agencies only if they determine that the system is “vulnerable” to them.

No list? Best to GET ONE, because you should not pay for services you do not need, yet you should do all that is required. The regulations changed in July 1995 and are very complicated depending upon past testing, past results, waiver eligibility, etc. To make matters more confusing, regulators are constantly changing what they require of the systems from one year to the next. The analyses varies depending on what they are testing:

  • Transient Non-community system (campgrounds, small businesses, etc.): All Title 22 requires is a one-time analysis of what is listed in the price book as “Transient Non- community Water System Monitoring.” Thereafter, they must test nitrate yearly and nitrite every 3 years.
  • Non-transient, non-community systems: For new wells, these get a short list of secondary standards, the primary inorganic standards (often cyanide and asbestos are waived), gross alpha (done immediately –see #5 above), and VOC’s. Nitrate is yearly, and nitrite every 3 years. Primary’ and secondary standards are every 3 years for wells and yearly for surface water. After three analyses with ND as the result, the systems may apply for a 9-year, waiver for many analyses.
  • Small systems «200 service connections, reporting to County regulators): For new wells most counties have been requiring Secondary Standards, Primary Inorganic Standards, VOC’s, and Gross Alpha Nitrate is yearly, and nitrite every 3 years. Primary and secondary standards are every 3 years for wells and yearly for surface water. After three analyses with ND as the result, the systems may apply for a 9-year waiver for many analyses.
  • Larger systems reporting to ODW (Office of Drinking Water) in Redding or Sacramento: They have been sending out computer printouts that tell the systems what is required and when. Their list may already be on file. For new wells, the Sacramento office has been requiring everything in the book -Primary standards (including asbestos and cyanide), secondary standards (including thiobencarb and MTBE), VOC’s, SOC’s, and gross alpha and uranium (and possibly radon). Policies of the Redding office for new wells are unknown at this time.
Do I need composites of 4 quarterly samples?

In this case we provide you with a 1/2 gallon bucket for sample collection.
You receive 1 pint plastic bottle for each quarter, and arrangements are made for collecting other three quarters. Results and bill will not be forthcoming until at least 9 months later.
Don’t know
How to decide if radiological composites are allowed: If all else fails, the client shall contact their regulatory agency, or we can do it. Refer to the breakdown below for general guidelines based on past experience. Use 2 gallons for non-composited single sample analyses if that is what is required. If composites are allowed, use 4 pints, one for each quarter. Arrangements are then made for collection of next 3 quarterly samples. Clients should understand that reports and bills for composited samples will not be forthcoming until 9 -10 months later.

  • New sources: On a new well, most regulators require that the first sample be run as is (give them 1/2 gallon for this) so that the well can be put into use ASAP. Clients must understand that they will be billed for this sample as soon as it is done. The next 3 samples are composited (give them 3 pints. Be sure they understand that this report and bill will come in about 9 -10 months. Arrangements are then made for collection of next 3 quarterly samples.)
  • Existing sources: For the most part, systems are required to either test one sample per source each quarter for 4 quarters or to composite the 4 quarterly samples and run one analysis on the composite sample. The latter is the usual procedure, as it is less expensive.

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